Tracheal intubation, surgical relaxation, optimizing mechanical ventilation condition
|Routes of administration||
|Mechanism of action||
Nicotinic acetylcholine antagonism
Anaphylactic reaction, histamine release
|Onset of action||
2 to 3.3 minutes
|Duration of action||
Less than 30 minutes
|Physical and chemical data|
Mivacurium is a short acting non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent used for optimizing tracheal intubation conditions, surgical relaxation, optimizing mechanical ventilation, and preventing fasciculation from succinylcholine when administered prior. This is medication is available in most of the world except it is not sold in the United States of America.
- Optimizing tracheal intubation condition among patients with renal or hepatic dysfunction
- Abduction of vocal cords
- Opening of mouth
- Reduction in coughing and gagging
- Provide surgical relaxation among patients with renal or hepatic dysfunction
- Optimizing mechanical ventilation conditions among patients with renal or hepatic dysfunction
- Reduction in bucking/coughing
- Reduction in breath stacking
- Known hypersensitivity
- Prolonged duration of action in patients who are homozygous for atypical pseudocholinesterase
- Large doses of mivacurium can be divided into smaller doses to avoid hemodynamic side effects from the histamine release
- Eliminated via pseudocholinesterase
Mechanism of action
- Competitive antagonism of acetylcholine at the post junctional receptors preventing depolarization of the muscle preventing any movement. Only one molecule of the neuromuscular blocker is needed to prevent activation of the receptor as it competes with acetylcholine at the two binding sites.
- Anaphylactic reaction due to the ammonium ion in the NMB
- Histamine release
- Muscle weakness or myopathy due to persistent failure of neuromuscular transmission and immobilization-induced atrophy of diaphragm when used for a prolonged duration
- Posttraummatic stress syndrome from awareness during paralysis if sedation is not used adequately.
- Impairment of ventilation-perfusion distribution and decreased right ventricular end-diastolic volume due to abolishment of spontaneous breathing.
- Duration of action after 2.5 x ED95 is approximately less than 30 minutes 
- Onset of action is about 2 to 3.3 minutes 
Chemistry and formulation
- Comprised of a mixture of 3 stereoisomers, one of which -the cis-cis isomer- is less than one-tenth as potent as the trans-trans and cis-trans isomers
- Not available in the United States of America 
- Goodwin, G., Joseph, V. (2015). Neuromuscular Blockers. In: Kaye, A., Kaye, A., Urman, R. (eds) Essentials of Pharmacology for Anesthesia, Pain Medicine, and Critical Care. Springer, New York, NY. https://doi-org.laneproxy.stanford.edu/10.1007/978-1-4614-8948-1_12
- Lien, Cynthia A.; Eikermann, Matthias (2013), "Neuromuscular Blockers and Reversal Drugs", Pharmacology and Physiology for Anesthesia, Elsevier, pp. 325–348, retrieved 2023-01-05
- Frampton JE, McTavish D. Mivacurium. A review of its pharmacology and therapeutic potential in general anaesthesia. Drugs. 1993 Jun;45(6):1066-1089. doi: 10.2165/00003495-199345060-00009. PMID: 7691494.
- Kaye, Alan David; Kaye, Adam M.; Urman, Richard D., eds. (2015). "Essentials of Pharmacology for Anesthesia, Pain Medicine, and Critical Care". doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-8948-1. Cite journal requires
- Lien, Cynthia A.; Eikermann, Matthias (2019), "Neuromuscular Blockers and Reversal Drugs", Pharmacology and Physiology for Anesthesia, Elsevier, pp. 428–454, retrieved 2023-01-05
- Frampton, James E.; McTavish, Donna (1993-06). "Mivacurium: A Review of its Pharmacology and Therapeutic Potential in General Anaesthesia". Drugs. 45 (6): 1066–1089. doi:10.2165/00003495-199345060-00009. ISSN 0012-6667. Check date values in: