Ketamine
Trade names Ketalar
Ketamine.svg
Clinical data
Drug class Sedative hypnotic
Uses Induction and maintenance of anesthesia, sedation, analgesia
Contraindications * <3 months old
  • Situations where elevated blood pressure or myocardial oxygen demand would be dangerous
  • Schizophrenia
  • Use controversial with elevated ICP or IOP
Routes of administration IV, IM, IN, PO, PR
Dosage Induction of anesthesia:
  • IV: 1-2 mg/kg
  • IM: 4-6 mg/kg
  • IN: 3-6 mg/kg

Subdissociative analgesia:

  • IV: 0.1-0.3 mg/kg, then 0.1 mg/kg/hr
Pharmacodynamics
Mechanism of action NMDA antagonism
Adverse effects Laryngospasm

Hypersalivation Emesis

Emergence reaction
Pharmacokinetics
Onset of action * IV: 15-30 seconds
  • IM: 3-5 minutes
Duration of action * IV: 5-10 minutes
  • IM: 12-30 minutes (residual 0.5-2 hours)
  • PO: 1-6+ hours
Metabolism Liver (CYP3A4, CYP2B6)
Elimination half-life 2.5-3 hours
Protein binding 23-47%
Physical and chemical data
Formula C13H16ClNO
Molar mass 237.73 g/mol


Ketamine is a dissociative anesthetic used for the induction of anesthesia, procedural sedation, and as an analgesic adjunct.

Uses

Contraindications

Absolute contraindications

Precautions

Pharmacology

Pharmacodynamics

Mechanism of action

Adverse effects

Pharmacokinetics

Chemistry and formulation

History

References