Propofol

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Propofol
Trade names Diprivan
Propofol.svg
Clinical data
Drug class Sedative hypnotic
Uses Induction and maintenance of anesthesia, sedation
Contraindications Egg/soy allergy (controversial)
Routes of administration Intravenous
Dosage Induction of anesthesia:
  • Adult: 1-2.5 mg/kg
  • Elderly: 1-1.5 mg/kg
  • Pediatric: 2.5-3.5 mg/kg

Maintenance of anesthesia:

  • Adult: 100-200 mcg/kg/min
  • Elderly: 50-100 mcg/kg/min
  • Pediatric: 125-300 mcg/kg/min
Pharmacodynamics
Mechanism of action GABA agonism
Adverse effects Hypotension

Bradycardia

Pain on injection
Pharmacokinetics
Onset of action 15-30 seconds
Duration of action 5-10 minutes
Metabolism Liver glucuronidation
Redistribution half-life 2-8 minutes (initial) 30-70 minutes (slow)
Elimination half-life 1.5-31 hours
Clearance 1.5-2.2 L/min
Protein binding 95-99%
pKa 11
Volume of distribution 6-40 L (central) 150-700 L (steady state)
Physical and chemical data
Formula C12H18O
Molar mass 178.275 g/mol

Propofol is the most commonly used intravenous anesthetic, used for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia, sedation of mechanically ventilated adults, and procedural sedation.

Uses

Contraindications

Absolute contraindications

Precautions

Pharmacology

Pharmacodynamics

Mechanism of action

Propofol reduces consciousness through GABAA receptor agonism and potentiation.

Adverse effects

  • Hypotension
  • Bradycardia
  • Apnea
  • Pain on injection
  • Propofol infusion syndrome
  • Hypertriglyceridemia

Pharmacokinetics

Chemistry and formulation

History

References