Functional endoscopic sinus surgery
Anesthesia type General
Airway ETT
Lines and access 1 x PIV
Monitors Standard ASA
5-lead EKG
Core temp
EEG (optional)
Primary anesthetic considerations
Preoperative
Intraoperative
Postoperative PONV prophylaxis


Provide a brief summary of this surgical procedure and its indications here.

Preoperative management

Patient evaluation

System Considerations
Neurologic
Cardiovascular
Respiratory
Gastrointestinal
Hematologic
Renal
Endocrine
Other

Labs and studies

Operating room setup

Patient preparation and premedication

  • Versed

Regional and neuraxial techniques

Intraoperative management

Monitoring and access

  • PIV x 1 (20g for drips, bolus)

Induction and airway management

  • Standard induction
    • Propofol
    • Short acting opioid vs beta blocker
      • Can even use remifentanil bolus as induction agent, but consider risk of chest rigidity on induction
    • Rocuronium
      • Induction dose should be sufficient for the entire case as you are also running a remifentanil gtt, which should blunt movement
  • ETT with straight connector
    • Can you use standard ETT vs oral RAE, depending on surgeon preference. Taping a standard tube off to the left commissure is often acceptable as surgeons will typically be working on patient’s right.
    • Consider mastisol and tegaderm reinforcement of the ETT as you will not have access to the airway.

Positioning

  • 180 - place all leads and wiring on one side of the body prior to induction to facilitate an easier spin
  • Supine
  • Arms tucked
    • Additional IV access site options: saphenous veins

Maintenance and surgical considerations

  • Prop gtt (if TIVA, start at 125 mcg/kg/min)
  • Remi gtt (start at 0.1 mcg/kg/min)
  • +/- Volatile
  • As with many ENT cases in the nose, can be very stimulating, hence the suggested remi gtt. However, once the stimulation is over, it is typically not very painful so do not overdo it with long-acting opioids.
  • Limit fluids to less than 1L.
  • Foley: no

Emergence

  • Paralytic reversal
  • Spin back to neutral if working alone. Can extubate 180 if there are two anesthesia providers and the airway was not difficult.
  • Awake extubation, but smooth, hence the remifentanil gtt (decrease to 0.03-0.05 mcg/kg/min for extubation).
  • Avoid positive pressure masking after extubation

Postoperative management

Disposition

  • PACU

Pain management

  • ENT will inject lidocaine with epinephrine, watch for IV injection → tachycardia, hypertension
  • Tylenol IV
  • Short-acting opioids, fentanyl (be judicious)

Potential complications

Procedure variants

Variant 1 Variant 2
Unique considerations
Position
Surgical time
EBL
Postoperative disposition
Pain management
Potential complications

References